How did “Chinese Exclusion Act” started?

How did “Chinese Exclusion Act” started?
Together with his friend, Professor Xiaoyan Zhang created this video before the election.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Building on the 1875 Page Act, which banned Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first, and remains the only law to have been implemented, to prevent all members of a specific ethnic or national group from immigrating to the United States.
The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed and strengthened in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902. These laws attempted to stop all Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years, with exceptions for diplomats, teachers, students, merchants, and travelers.
The laws were widely evaded.[1] Exclusion was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943, which allowed 105 Chinese to enter per year. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula
他说:这促使我仔细研究了一下产生这一美国历史上最不公平法案的历史背景。令人吃惊的是,《排华法案》背后的真实原因不是人们常认为的华工抢了白人劳工的饭碗,而是白人政客害怕“无法被同化”的华裔的入籍以及华人选票对美国政治天平的影响。入籍问题比劳工数量更重要。 1870年7月2日,美国参议院讨论修改《入籍法》时,林肯的好友,麻州的萨姆纳(Charles Sumner)参议员起身发言提出了如下修正:必须从《入籍法》中删除“白种人”字眼,并且不准以种族为由拒绝任何人入籍。当天下午这个修正案就通过了。 此时内华达州的斯图尔特(William Stewart)参议员发言阐述他的担忧:太平洋沿岸有十万男性华人,他们多数是铁路工人,他们可能会加入美国籍,从而改变太平洋沿岸的政治力量平衡。于是他说这条修正案不准纳入《入籍法》,否则这项修正案将遭遇阻挠(filibuster)。
最后,为了打破僵局,只好把萨姆纳的修正案从入籍法案中删除。这样,国会就作为第一步先只通过了允许非洲裔(被解放的黑奴)加入美国籍的修正案,而将华裔入籍问题推到下一步。 这一步之差,使华人入籍推迟了73年(1943年废除排华法案),华裔成为政治斗争的牺牲品。
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